SINKHOLES ARE DANGEROUS AND COSTLY EVENTS THAT DIRECTLY AFFECT INDIANA.
Sinkholes are caused by the collapse of caverns often resulting from water table fluctuations. According to https://igws.indiana.edu/Bedrock/Karst sinkholes form where the carbonates are dissolved and the soil layer on top falls into the resulting depression. Sinkholes may or may not have an apparent opening to underground drainage. Sinking or disappearing streams are surface streams in karst areas that flow directly into the groundwater system at a feature called a “swallow hole.”
Erosion caused by construction and the resulting transport of soil may clog sinkholes that normally drain surface waters. Subsequently, even smaller storms can flood the sinkholes and surrounding areas (fig. 3). The construction of impermeable surfaces, such as buildings and pavement, also increases the amount of water that flows on the surface. This can result in temporary flooding in the vicinity of a sinkhole that would normally be able to accept the entire discharge (Veni and others, 2006).